Chrysanthemum tea is a flowering herbal tea made from chrysanthemum flowers that has been consumed for centuries for its pleasant aroma and potential health benefits. Originally from East Asia, chrysanthemum tea has become popular throughout the world due to its refreshing taste and soothing properties. Read on to learn all about the origins, preparation, health effects, and more regarding this delicate floral tea.
What is Chrysanthemum Tea?
Chrysanthemum tea is an herbal infusion made from chrysanthemum flowers. The base of the tea is made from chrysanthemum flowers of the species Chrysanthemum morifolium or Chrysanthemum indicum.
Chrysanthemum tea has a delicate, mildly floral aroma and a light, refreshing taste. Unlike black or green tea, it does not contain any caffeine. The tea is pale yellow in color and transparent.
Other names for chrysanthemum tea include gulgul-cha (Korea), gók hó (China), and tang hoa trà (Vietnam).
Where Does Chrysanthemum Tea Come From?
The chrysanthemum plant originated in East Asia and Northeastern Europe. Chrysanthemum tea has a long history in China, where it has been consumed for over a thousand years.
The Song Dynasty (960–1279) in China heavily promoted the drinking of chrysanthemum tea for its medicinal properties. Chinese folk medicine used the tea as a remedy for respiratory issues, high blood pressure, and hyperthyroidism.
The tea was introduced to Japan in the 8th century CE by Buddhist monks. In Japan, it is referred to as kiku-cha or “chrysanthemum tea.” The Imperial Seal of Japan also features a 16-petal chrysanthemum flower, highlighting the cultural significance of the plant.
Chrysanthemum tea consumption later spread to Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, and other parts of Asia. The Korean variety yuja-cha adds citrus fruits like yuzu to make a distinct citrus-floral infusion.
Recently, chrysanthemum tea has become more widely available worldwide due to increased global interest in the health benefits of herbal teas.
How is Chrysanthemum Tea Made?
Chrysanthemum tea is made from dried chrysanthemum flowers or chrysanthemum flower buds. The dried flowers or buds are steeped in hot (not boiling) water to extract their flavor and nutrients.
The flowers may be left whole or cut into small pieces. For a stronger tea, more flowers by volume are used. The chrysanthemums release their flavor and aroma within just 1-3 minutes of steeping. Avoid over-steeping, which can result in a bitter tea.
Sometimes, chrysanthemum flowers are blended with other herbs like licorice or mint. The Korean yuja-cha variety includes thinly sliced citrus fruits. Rock sugar is also commonly added to sweeten the subtle floral flavor.
After steeping, the tea should be poured through a strainer to remove all pieces of the flowers or flower buds before drinking.
How is Chrysanthemum Tea Consumed?
Chrysanthemum tea can be enjoyed hot or chilled. In the summer months, it is frequently served as a cooling iced tea. The pale yellow tea has a clear, light appearance when poured.
The smooth floral flavor profile of chrysanthemum tea makes it ideal to sip plain without sweeteners or additives. However, a touch of honey can accentuate the sweetness of the chrysanthemum flavor. Lemon or other citrus wedges can also complement the tea’s light flavors.
Chrysanthemum tea combines very well with dim sum meals, as both food and drink originated in China. The tea’s delicate profile does not overpower dishes. It also aids digestion after eating heavy dim sum dishes.
In traditional Chinese medicine, chrysanthemum tea is said to be cooling for the body and is recommended for wearing during hot summer months. It is believed to counter symptoms like dizziness, headaches, sore throat, and fever in summer heat.
What are the Benefits of Chrysanthemum Tea?
For centuries, chrysanthemum tea has been consumed for its wide range of purported medicinal benefits. Some of the most researched health benefits of drinking chrysanthemum tea include:
- Rich in antioxidants – Chrysanthemum flowers contain various antioxidant compounds like flavonoids, phenolic acids, and saponins that can help protect cells from damage by free radicals.
- Supports respiratory health – Traditional Chinese medicine uses chrysanthemum tea to treat respiratory illnesses. Compounds in the tea may help relieve coughs, chest tightness, and sore throat.
- Promotes eye health – Chrysanthemum tea contains beta-carotene, which the body converts to vitamin A. Vitamin A helps maintain healthy vision.
- Reduces inflammation – Studies indicate the chrysanthemum flower has anti-inflammatory properties that can help relieve swelling and irritation.
- Boosts immunity – The antioxidants, vitamin C, and other compounds in chrysanthemum tea strengthen the immune system to fight illness.
- Calms and relaxes – Chrysanthemum tea has a gentle sedative quality that can ease anxiety and promote relaxation.
- Improves heart health – Antioxidants in the tea may help lower cholesterol levels and blood pressure.
- Detoxifies the liver – Chrysanthemum tea has been shown to reduce liver inflammation and protect liver tissue.
- Lowers heat/fire – In traditional Chinese medicine, chrysanthemum cools excessive heat in the body and calms the liver.
More research in humans is needed to substantiate many of the purported medicinal benefits of chrysanthemum tea. But the results so far are promising.
The History of Chrysanthemum Tea
Chrysanthemums were first cultivated over 2,500 years ago in China. The flower was revered for its beauty and fragrance. By the Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE), chrysanthemum tea consumption was highly ingrained in Chinese culture.
The Chinese city of Hangzhou became famous for its chrysanthemum flower fields and high-quality chrysanthemum tea. Ancient Chinese texts from the time extol the medicinal properties of drinking chrysanthemum tea made from Hangzhou’s chrysanthemums.
Buddhist monks introduced chrysanthemum tea to Japan in the 8th century CE. The Japanese were enthralled by the flower’s beauty and adopted it as a symbol of the Imperial family.
In both China and Japan, special festivals celebrate chrysanthemums and the arrival of the flowers each autumn. The Chinese Chongyang Festival and Japanese Festival of Happiness honor the flower.
Koreans developed yuja-cha, a honey-citrus-chrysanthemum tea, and Vietnam produced their own chrysanthemum varieties too. As trade expanded during the 17th century, chrysanthemum tea slowly reached the Western world.
Today, chrysanthemum tea remains deeply important in Eastern culture. Modern research into the bioactive compounds of chrysanthemums has sparked global interest in the possible medicinal properties of the flowering tea.
The Different Types of Chrysanthemum Tea
There are several varieties of chrysanthemum tea throughout Asia:
- Chinese chrysanthemum tea (gú jú) – The original plain chrysanthemum flower tea. Produced from the Chuju or Chop Suey chrysanthemum cultivar. Has a fresh, grassy, floral profile.
- Japanese chrysanthemum tea (kiku-cha) – Uses the Giant Garland (Shungiku) chrysanthemum variety native to Japan. Mild and delicate flavor.
- Korean chrysanthemum tea (gukhwacha) – Made from Ogorum chrysanthemum native to Korea. Smooth, slightly nutty taste.
- Yuja-cha – A Korean tea made by slicing and steeping chrysanthemum with yuzu citrus fruit and honey. Distinct citrus notes.
- Moroccan chrysanthemum tea – Uses the Glebionis coronaria variety of chrysanthemum mixed with fresh spearmint. Bold spearmint masks the floral notes.
- Thai chrysanthemum tea – Blends chrysanthemum with spices like cinnamon, licorice root, lemongrass, and crushed tamarind. Robust spiced flavor.
The aroma, taste, and health effects can vary based on the chrysanthemum cultivar used. Try different varieties to find your favorite.
How to Brew Chrysanthemum Tea
Follow these simple steps for brewing the perfect cup of fresh chrysanthemum tea at home:
1. Boil water – Bring fresh water to a boil, then remove from heat and let stand for 1-2 minutes until temperature lowers to about 180°F to 190°F. The water should be hot but not boiling to avoid scalding the delicate flowers.
2. Add chrysanthemums – For one 8oz serving, add around 2-3g (1-2 teaspoons) of dried chrysanthemum flowers or buds to a teapot or infuser. More can be added for a stronger tea.
3. Steep – Let the chrysanthemums steep for 1-5 minutes depending on desired strength. Check the color of the tea to prevent over-steeping.
4. Strain and serve – Pour the tea through a fine mesh strainer into teacups. The strainer will catch all pieces of the flowers. Serve hot or chilled over ice.
5. Sweeten if desired – Add a teaspoon of honey, simple syrup, or sugar if you prefer a sweeter tea. Lemon, mint, or milk are also nice additions.
6. Store leftovers – Refrigerate any leftover chrysanthemum tea in an airtight container. The tea will keep for 2-3 days.
How to Drink Chrysanthemum Tea
Chrysanthemum tea is light, refreshing, and versatile. It can be enjoyed:
- Hot or chilled
- Plain or with sweeteners like honey
- With dim sum or Asian dishes
- Alongside citrus fruits or herbs
- As a caffeine-free alternative to black or green tea
- In place of water or soda for hydration
Some popular ways to drink chrysanthemum tea include:
- Iced chrysanthemum tea sweetened with rock sugar
- Hot chrysanthemum tea with lemon and honey
- Yuja-cha (Korean citrus chrysanthemum tea)
- Chrysanthemum boba milk tea
- Chrysanthemum tea lattes
- Chrysanthemum tea cocktails with gin or vodka
The subtle floral notes pair well with many flavors. Experiment with your own chrysanthemum tea combinations!
The Health Benefits of Chrysanthemum Tea in Detail
Modern research is uncovering more about the powerful health benefits of compounds found in chrysanthemum flowers. Here are some of the top studied wellness benefits:
Rich in Antioxidants
Chrysanthemum flowers contain various antioxidants like beta carotene, lutein, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. These compounds help neutralize oxidative damage from free radicals that can lead to chronic diseases.
Supports Respiratory Health
Traditional Chinese medicine recommends chrysanthemum tea to treat respiratory illnesses. Compounds in the tea may help relieve coughs, chest tightness, and sore throat. It also acts as an expectorant to expel phlegm.
Boosts Immune Function
The antioxidants, vitamin C, and other compounds in chrysanthemum tea strengthen the immune system to better fight viruses and infections. This helps prevent and shorten the duration of illnesses.
Compounds in chrysanthemum tea called apigenin and luteolin create a mild sedative effect that eases anxiety and promotes relaxation. This helps lower stress levels.
Detoxifies the Liver
Studies indicate chrysanthemum tea exhibits hepatoprotective effects, meaning it reduces liver inflammation and protects liver tissue from toxins and damage. This aids the liver’s natural detoxification processes.
Improves Heart Health
The antioxidants in chrysanthemum tea may help improve cardiovascular health by lowering blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and atherosclerosis. This reduces risk of heart disease and stroke.
The chrysanthemum flower has natural anti-inflammatory abilities. Consuming chrysanthemum tea regularly may aid in reducing systemic inflammation that can lead to chronic diseases if prolonged.
Enhances Skin Health
Vitamins and antioxidants in the tea improve skin tone and texture. Chrysanthemum tea’s anti-inflammatory effects also calm certain skin disorders associated with inflammation like eczema.
Supports Eye Health
Chrysanthemum flowers contain beta carotene that the body converts into vitamin A, an essential nutrient for good vision and eye health. It helps slow retinal damage over time.
May Have Anti-Cancer Effects
Early studies suggest certain compounds in chrysanthemum tea may have anti-tumor abilities and be protective against cancers like lung, liver, and prostate cancer. More research is needed.
The Potential Side Effects of Chrysanthemum Tea
For most people, drinking moderate amounts of chrysanthemum tea is very safe and risk of side effects is low. However, some things to be aware of include:
- Allergic reactions – Chrysanthemums belong to the daisy family. Those with sensitivities to plants in this family may experience contact dermatitis, eczema flares, or anaphylaxis.
- Photosensitivity – Chrysanthemum tea may make skin more sensitive to UV rays. Wear sun protection if consuming regularly.
- Headaches – In some individuals, drinking large amounts may cause dehydration headaches. Stay hydrated by drinking water too.
- Hormone effects – Chrysanthemum tea has phytoestrogens so those with hormone-sensitive conditions should exercise caution. Consult a doctor first.
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding – Not enough research exists on safety for pregnant or nursing women. Exercise caution or avoid use.
- Bleeding disorders – Chrysanthemum tea might slow blood clotting. Avoid use for 2 weeks before any scheduled surgeries.
- Diabetes – Chrysanthemum may lower blood sugar levels. Monitor levels closely if taking diabetes medication.
If any worrisome symptoms occur, discontinue drinking chrysanthemum tea and consult a medical professional as needed.
Chrysanthemum Tea and Culture
For centuries, the chrysanthemum has held deep cultural significance in East Asia. Beyond just being a beverage, chrysanthemum tea is intertwined with philosophy, poetry, and the appreciation of nature.
In China, the chrysanthemum represents longevity, rejuvenation, nobility, and spiritual refinement. Chrysanthemum motifs commonly decorate Chinese pottery, fabrics, and art.
The Chinese Chongyang Festival held on the 9th day of the 9th lunar month celebrates chrysanthemums. It is a time to reflect on the good life by drinking chrysanthemum tea.
In Japan, the chrysanthemum emblem represents the Japanese Emperor and the Imperial throne. The orderly unfolding of the flower’s petals signifies perfection.
The Japanese Festival of Happiness is celebrated on September 9th each year. Part of the festivities involve drinking freshly harvested chrysanthemum tea.
In Korea, a love for the subtle flavors of chrysanthemum tea reflects the Korean ideal of being one with nature. The tea represents quiet nobility.
Beyond health benefits, drinking chrysanthemum tea connects people to the wisdom and aesthetics of traditional East Asian philosophy.
Chrysanthemum Tea and Health
Chrysanthemum tea is valued in Eastern medicine systems like traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to TCM, chrysanthemum tea has cooling properties that counter the effects of heat in the body.
Some of the main health uses of chrysanthemum tea in traditional practices include:
- Clearing excess liver heat and detoxifying the liver
- Cooling the body during hot summer months
- Easing headaches, sore throats, and fevers
- Improving vision and soothing dry, red eyes
- Calming the nerves and promoting relaxation
- Treating hypertension and arteriosclerosis
- Preventing colds and flu
In TCM, herbs are prescribed based on each person’s unique constitution and symptoms. A TCM practitioner can provide personalized recommendations on using chrysanthemum tea medicinally.
Many traditional health claims about chrysanthemum tea are being validated by modern research. While more human clinical trials are still needed, the existing evidence of wellness benefits looks promising.
Chrysanthemum Tea and Recipes
The delicate flavor of chrysanthemum tea complements many ingredients. Get creative by using chrysanthemum tea in these nourishing drink and dessert recipes:
Iced Chrysanthemum Green Tea – Brew chrysanthemum flowers with sencha green tea leaves. Sweeten with a little honey and pour over ice.
Chrysanthemum Matcha Latte – Blend milk or nondairy milk with matcha powder and chrysanthemum tea concentrate. Froth with a milk frother.
Chrysanthemum Chai – Simmer chrysanthemum flowers with black tea, spices like cardamom and cinnamon, milk, and sweetener. Strain and drink.
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Chrysanthemum Lemonade – Steep chrysanthemum flowers with lemon juice, lemon slices, and sweetener. Pour over ice for a floral lemonade.
Chrysanthemum Rice Pudding – Infuse chrysanthemum tea into rice pudding as it cooks. Top with rock sugar and milk.
Chrysanthemum Cocktails – Use chrysanthemum tea as the base for martinis, gin cocktails, vodka drinks, and more.
Chrysanthemum Granita – Freeze sweetened chrysanthemum tea into granita flakes. Top with fresh fruit.
Chrysanthemum Jelly – Make a tea concentrate and mix with gelatin, sugar, and citrus juice. Pour into molds to set.
Chrysanthemum Panna Cotta – Infuse cream with chrysanthemum tea, let thicken with gelatin, and pour into dessert molds to chill.
Chrysanthemum Macarons – Add dried chrysanthemum powder into the almond flour for flavored macaron shells. Fill with buttercream.
The options are only limited by your imagination. Chrysanthemum tea adds subtle floral essence to both sweet and savory recipes.
Chrysanthemum Tea and Accessories
To brew and serve chrysanthemum tea properly, having the right accessories can enhance the experience:
- Infuser or strainers – Mesh infusers or small strainers are essential for steeping loose chrysanthemum flowers before drinking the tea.
- Teapots – Elegant Chinese-style glass, porcelain, or clay teapots suit the delicate chrysanthemum tea.
- Teacups – Small teacups like Chinese gaiwan cups help highlight chrysanthemum tea’s aroma and prevent the tea from cooling too quickly.
- Iced tea pitchers – Use large glass pitchers to brew chrysanthemum tea in bulk to enjoy chilled.
- Flower scissors – Special tea scissors with longer blades simplify cutting whole chrysanthemum flowers into smaller pieces.
- Tea trays – Keep a tray underneath the teapot to catch any drips and splashes. Trays also enable easy transport.
- Tea pets – Carved teapet figurines made of materials like clay or Yixing help absorb excess moisture from the teapot.
- Tea caddies – Decorative tea caddies keep loose chrysanthemum flower tea fresh in an airtight container.
Pairing fine chrysanthemum tea with refined accessories can really elevate the whole drink experience.
Frequently Asked Questions About Chrysanthemum Tea
Here are answers to some common questions about chrysanthemum tea:
What does chrysanthemum tea taste like?
Chrysanthemum tea has a very light, delicate floral taste. It is slightly grassy or herbal with a smooth, refreshing finish.
Is chrysanthemum tea caffeine free?
Yes, chrysanthemum tea is naturally caffeine-free unlike black tea, green tea, or coffee. It can be enjoyed in the evenings.
Can you drink chrysanthemum tea everyday?
Yes, drinking 1-3 cups of chrysanthemum tea per day is safe for most people and provides excellent health benefits. Avoid excessive consumption.
How do you store chrysanthemum tea?
Keep dried chrysanthemum flowers or tea bags in an airtight container away from light, heat, and moisture. The tea lasts up to 1 year stored properly.
Does chrysanthemum tea go bad?
Dry chrysanthemum flowers do not really expire but will degrade in flavor and aroma over time. Brewed chrysanthemum tea should be refrigerated and used within 2-3 days.
Can chrysanthemum tea be consumed while pregnant?
Insufficient research exists on safety during pregnancy, so it is best avoided or minimized. Consult your doctor first.
Can children drink chrysanthemum tea?
Yes, chrysanthemum tea is safe for children over 2 years in moderation. Avoid giving chamomile tea to infants and toddlers.
Is Chrysanthemum Tea Right For You?
If you enjoy floral flavors or are curious about East Asian teas, chrysanthemum tea is worth trying. The tea offers a new delicate experience for the senses.
Those interested in the potential therapeutic benefits of chrysanthemum tea should ask their healthcare provider about including it in their wellness regimen.
Chrysanthemum tea is also ideal for anyone looking to cut back on caffeine without sacrificing flavor. It makes a soothing evening drink before bed.
Consider your tastes, health needs, and lifestyle to determine if regularly drinking chrysanthemum tea could be beneficial for you.
Where to Buy Chrysanthemum Tea
You can purchase chrysanthemum tea from tea retailers online or at specialty Asian grocers. Look for:
- Loose dried chrysanthemum flowers
- Tea bags containing chrysanthemum flowers
- Powdered instant chrysanthemum tea
- Bottled premade chrysanthemum tea drinks
- Chrysanthemum herbal tea blends
For the freshest tea, buy new harvest loose chrysanthemum flowers within the year. Check the ingredients label carefully when buying tea bags, powders, or blends.
High-quality chrysanthemum tea has a strong, pleasant floral aroma. The tea should have a pale yellow color and clear appearance. Store tea properly to retain freshness.
Resources for Learning More About Chrysanthemum Tea
To dive deeper into the world of chrysanthemum tea, check out these books, publications, and websites:
- The Book of Tea by Kakuzo Okakura – This classic text explores tea culture.
- Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine – Scholarly articles on traditional medicine.
- The Chinese Art of Tea by John Blofeld – Details Chinese tea history and cultural traditions.
- The Tea Enthusiast’s Handbook by Mary Lou Heiss – Comprehensive tea guide.
- The Health Benefits Times – Blog exploring herbal tea benefits.
- TeaSource – Tea vendor with extensive chrysanthemum tea information.
- Teavivre Tea Magazine – Articles explain varieties of teas.
- World of Tea – Reviews different international tea types.
The Science Behind Chrysanthemum Tea
Modern research is revealing how the phytochemicals in chrysanthemum flowers contribute to wellness:
Flavonoids – Compounds like luteolin provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects.
Phenolic acids – Chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids exhibit antimicrobial and antihypertensive properties.
Polysaccharides – These compounds boost immune function and inhibit tumor cell proliferation.
Essential oils – Linalool, α-pinene, eucalyptol, and limonene supply chrysanthemum tea’s aroma and therapeutic benefits.
Carotenoids – Beta carotene is converted to vitamin A to support eye health and vision.
Minerals and vitamins – Chrysanthemum tea also contains magnesium, potassium, iron, and vitamin C.
Ongoing research continues to uncover the mechanisms behind the health benefits of sipping chrysanthemum tea.
Chrysanthemum Tea and Weight Loss
The potential weight loss effects of chrysanthemum tea are attributed to:
Diuretic effects – Chrysanthemum tea acts as a natural diuretic to reduce water weight. It helps flush out excess water and sodium.
Improved digestion – Compounds in chrysanthemum tea support healthy digestion and metabolism. This optimizes calorie burning.
Detoxification – By supporting liver function, chrysanthemum tea helps remove toxins that can interfere with fat metabolism.
Reduced inflammation – The anti-inflammatory activity of chrysanthemum tea may help decrease inflammation linked to obesity.
Lower cholesterol – Studies indicate chrysanthemum tea can lower LDL and total cholesterol levels, improving heart health.
Enhanced fat burning – Early research suggests chrysanthemum extracts may have an anti-obesity effect by influencing adipose tissue genes.
By promoting overall wellness, chrysanthemum tea can aid weight loss efforts when combined with lifestyle changes. More clinical trials are required to verify these beneficial effects.
Chrysanthemum Tea and Mental Health
The potential psychoactive benefits of chrysanthemum tea for mental health include:
Reduced anxiety – Luteolin and other compounds create mild tranquilizing effects to calm nerves.
Improved sleep – Drinking chrysanthemum tea before bed can help induce drowsiness and improve sleep quality.
Eased depression – Via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, chrysanthemum may help stabilize mood disorders.
Enhanced cognition – Certain compounds show neuroprotective qualities to help maintain brain function.
Lowered stress – The relaxing properties of chrysanthemum tea curb the negative effects of chronic stress.
Alleviated headaches – Chrysanthemum tea inhibits inflammation pathways linked to tension headaches and migraines.
Anti-aging effects – Antioxidants in chrysanthemum tea protect brain cells against age-related oxidative damage.
By acting on multiple mechanisms, chrysanthemum tea may be a helpful botanical supplement for managing mental health issues holistically.
Chrysanthemum Tea and Sports Performance
For athletes and active individuals, chrysanthemum tea offers several potential performance benefits:
- Rehydration – The minerals in chrysanthemum tea help restore fluid and electrolyte balance after intense exercise.
- Reduced inflammation – Chrysanthemum tea can alleviate exercise-induced inflammation and muscle soreness.
- Increased blood flow – Antioxidants improve circulation, bringing more oxygen and nutrients to working muscles.
- Immune defense – Compounds in chrysanthemum strengthen the immune system against damage from intense training.
- Accelerated recovery – Nutrients in the tea support muscle recovery so athletes bounce back faster.
- Detoxification – Chrysanthemum tea helps cleanse the liver of toxins from exertion and environmental exposure.
- Lowered cholesterol – The tea also optimizes cholesterol profiles and heart health for endurance athletes.
By relieving exercise stress, chrysanthemum tea helps maintain strong athletic performance over time.
Chrysanthemum Tea and Sustainability
The chrysanthemum tea industry aims to make cultivation and production more sustainable:
- Organic practices – Some chrysanthemum farms avoid synthetic pesticides and fertilizers to reduce environmental impact.
- Economic viability – Buying ethically sourced tea supports livelihoods of small farmers.
- Water efficiency – New production methods are reducing the amount of water needed to grow chrysanthemum tea crops.
- Forest conservation – Sourcing old garden cultivars decreases pressure to encroach on forested land.
- Preserving biodiversity – Heritage chrysanthemum species are being protected to maintain genetic diversity.
- Regenerative agriculture – Better soil management increases soil carbon sequestration on tea farms.
- Reducing waste – Reusable, compostable, and biodegradable packaging is becoming more common.
- Energy efficiency – Processing facilities optimize energy use and rely more on renewable energy.
Conscientious chrysanthemum tea companies are leading the way toward a greener, more sustainable tea trade.